From 1 July, international scientists looking to use Chinese genetic material and data must have at least one Chinese collaborator working with them, according to new regulations from the Chinese government.

China’s new state council order includes 46 articles restricting use and storage of any materials from the country which contain human genomes, including organs and cells, as well as data derived from those sources.

The articles deal with the ethical collection and use of the data, but also control the study of Chinese genetic material or data abroad.

New regulations from China have introduced heavier penalties for breaking laws around sharing data publicly or giving biomaterials to others without prior government approval. The regulations include fines of up to $1.4 million US dollars, and potential blacklisting of companies from conducting similar research in the future.