Researchers hope that the effort will be able to validate liquid biopsy (LB) diagnostic methods for childhood lymphomas that are endemic in the region
New research has identified mutations that could lead to the lengthening of telomeres, a hallmark of cancer cells and an important focus in developing targeted treatments. Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center looked at cancer cells to find the ways some of them achieve immortality in a study as part of the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG).
New research from institutions in Singapore and China has identified genetic differences that occur between lung adenocarcinomas in East Asians and Europeans. Published in Nature Genetics, the researchers found that lung adenocarcinomas had more stable genomes in East Asians than in Europeans, and a stronger difference in smokers compared to non-smokers.
A new type of scan has been used to visualise regions of breast tumours that are active with magnetising molecules in research funded by Cancer Research UK. The work used carbon-13 hyperpolarised imaging to monitor breast cancer, allowing not only visualising the tumour as a whole, but details of its internal metabolic state as well.
Scientists at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have found that drugs used for inflammation, diabetes, alcoholism, and arthritis also have anti-cancer properties. Published in Nature Cancer, this is the first study to screen an entire collection of mostly non-cancer drugs to see if they can kill cancer cells.
New research has identified a possible reason why men are more susceptible to cancer than women. The work published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reports that the loss of function in certain genes of the sex-determining Y chromosome may play a role in this.
Researchers from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) have discovered that Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) grows by taking advantage of the B6 vitamin to accelerate cell division. The findings could pave the way for a treatment that can stop cancer growth by manipulating the enzyme that pushes B6 to make proteins essential for cell division.
A research team from Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University (LKSOM) and Fox Chase Cancer Centre found that in prostate cancer, a mutation leading to the loss of just one allele of a tumour suppressor gene known as PPP2R2A is enough to make a tumour caused by other mutations worse.
A collaborative fine-mapping study from researchers across more than 450 departments worldwide has found five times more genetic variants to be associated with breast cancer than previously thought. The most comprehensive map of breast cancer risk variants to date identified 352 DNA errors that are associated with breast cancer with “reasonable confidence”, and target 191 genes, five times more than were previously recognised.
Interview with Dr Susie Cooke, Head of Medical Genomics at the Glasgow Precision Oncology Laboratory
Dr Susie Cooke is the Head of Medical Genomics at the Glasgow Precision Oncology Laboratory whose main interest is in facilitating the move of next-generation sequencing into the clinic to help cancer patients.
Scientists at Navega Therapeutics in San Diego, California have discovered a way to target DNA to stop pain signals being sent and eliminate pain. In an article published by Pharmafile, the treatment could be available in five years to help sufferers of chronic pain or with long-term pain problems.
Researchers at the German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) and the University of Bonn have investigated the use of artificial intelligence to detect one of the most common forms of blood cancer – acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) – with high reliability. Published in iScience, the technique was used to analyse the expression of certain genes in cells of the blood.
Researchers at Penn Medicine have developed an imaging technique that can provide a non-invasive characterisation of tumour heterogeneity. They used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and radiomics – an emerging field of medicine that uses algorithms to extract large amounts of features from medical images
Researchers at the Salk institute have discovered a way in which some cancers resist chemotherapy. Published in Nature Metabolism, they showed that mitochondria can signal to the rest of the cell when there is stress or chemicals that can damage DNA, such as chemotherapy.
A new non-invasive method to detect the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 in saliva has been successfully used in a collaboration between Duke University, UCLA, and University of Birmingham. HPV-16 is a high-risk virus known to be an etiologic agent for the development of head and neck cancers, specifically with oropharyngeal caners (OPCs).